As we all know, our formal education is an organized one. We must have trained teachers to teach. Buildings and many facilities have to be put up in order to have educational institutions function effectively. The people we teach in schools, teacher training colleges and universities have to meet the needs of the society. It is these people that later works as doctors, lawyers, teachers and agricultural officers. All the above ideas come down to one very important thing, i.e. that our educational system must be arranged at every stage in such a way that it meets the needs of both the individual and the nation. This process of intelligently trying to organize education so as to respond to the needs of its recipients is what can be termed educational planning.
MEANING OF EDUCATIONAL PLANNING.
Educational planning means the process of setting out in advance a pattern of action to bring about overall changes as viewed by national policies by the closest possible articulation of means and ends. Education planning has been one of the early instruments of independent governments. Resources have to be used as effectively and systematically as possible. Educational planning is a process utilised by an administrator while performing the role of a leader, decision-maker, change-agent and so on.
It is a basic management task. It is a means of achieving higher levels of effectiveness. Its uniqueness lies in its future-orientation or anticipation made. Today, educational planning is an absolute requirement. The complexities of modern technology in society have given rise to the need for planning in education. Increasing populations, manpower needs, ecology, decreasing natural resources and haphazard application of scientific developments require educational planning.
To meet these problems, educational planning becomes a necessity and planning competence becomes mandatory. It is unavoidable for bringing about a desirable change in the educational organization for promoting the organizational health-its effectiveness and functional efficiency.
On the basis of the findings which were positive, the Institute came up with a detailed scheme regarding how it is to admit students, how course materials will be written, who should serve as writers of the course materials, when to write the texts, how the study centres will be organized and administered, how the progress will be monitored and evaluated, etc. It is this detailed programme that is called a plan. On the other hand, the process of setting out in advance this plan is what is called planning. Planning bridges the gap between where we are and where we want to be.
CHARACTERISTICS OF EDUCATIONAL PLANNING:
The following are the main characteristics of educational planning:
Modern educational planning emphasises involvement, representatives of most of the concerned sectors of the society in the process of planning.
(2) Remedial Measure:
Identifying cause of the educational problems and suggesting relevant solution is the main objective of educational planning. Another characteristics of modern educational planning is that it is remedial and guidance- oriented.
(3) Choice of Best Alternative:
Modern educational planning is a logical systematic and scientific process different from the elementary kinds of procedure utilised in the past of bringing about changes in the systems of education.
(4) Team Work:
A team of experts, responsible people and those who are to implement the plan should determine the goals and appropriate ways of attaining them. Modern educational planning emphasises that only the top administrator or the government should be involved in planning. Planning should be a responsibility of ail people concerned with the desired change.
(5) Social and Economic Goals:
The expected goals of the society and needs of children and young pupils in the schools and colleges should be the broad fame of reference. Modern educational planning emphasises that the goals of a democratic society should be social and economic concerned with the welfare and progress of all citizens rather than the selfish goals of some special interest groups.
(6) Scientific Changes:
Modern educational planning carefully and objectively collects data, interprets and analyses interrelationships between present and future needs. It also interprets and analysis inter-relatedness of the various components of the social and educational system.
Modern educational planning requires developments and needs change in future, must ahead of time so as proper facilities, supporting media and required resources for implementing the planned change may be secured. Planning (PDE 113)
EDUCATIONAL PLANNING PROCESS
The educational planning process contains the following steps; statement of educational objectives, identification of various activities needed to achieve the stated educational objectives and evaluation of results.
- Statement of educational objectives.
The educational objectives must be identified and clearly stated. This will ensure that there is no confusion about the objectives.
- Identification of various activities.
The various activities which are needed to achieve the stated objectives must be clearly identified. Usually, those activities relate to the supply of the human and material resources that are required. This ranges from identifying such institutions
(schools, examination bodies, etc) that would have to be established for the plan implementation and monitoring. They also relate to the identification of the number of staff required, their qualifications and experience and the amount of money required to maintain the system.
- Evaluation of results.
Evaluation should be related to the stated objectives. The extent to which a plan meets the objectives it has established for itself can be determined by looking at the implementation in relation to those objective and outcome results.
USES OF EDUCATIONAL PLANNING
Considering that educational planning is concerned with the problem of wisely distributing the limited resources and the types of education (formal, non-formal etc), the process of educational planning comprises three main functions.
- Identification of Objectives and strategies.
By this we mean that educational planning helps in identifying and defining the objectives and the strategies, programmes, procedures, policies and standards which education needs to be more effective and efficient. Through educational planning we are able to clearly identify and define educational objectives, identify and also clearly define various activities which are to be carried out to achieve the educational objective
- Proper Distribution of Scarce Resources.
By scarce resources, we mean the limited resources which are available to satisfy our
wants (needs). Educational planning helps in seeing to it that the limited resources are
properly or wisely allocated to provide the needed level and type of education to the
citizens of the country. In order to help in wisely allocating the limited resources,
alternative courses of action are compared and then the one that has great benefits for
the citizens are allocated more resources.
- Educational Planning aids decision making.
Educational Planning helps decision maker all levels to reach a better and well informed decision. This is because through educational planning, adequate data are collected on the particular level that we wish to plan for and on the basis of such information available. It is also easier to arrive at better decisions. Educational planning therefore helps to promote speedy and effective administration of the system since the administrators of the system are provided with necessary guidelines to work with. Furthermore, with educational planning, it becomes easy to evaluate the progress made in the educational system.
FUNDAMENTALS OF EDUCATIONAL PLANNING AND APPROACHES
Planning in education, like anything else is the process of making decisions for future action. Educational planning is the application of rational, systematic analysis to the process of
educational development with the aim of making education more effective and efficient in
responding to the needs and goals of its students and society. It opines that planning is an exercise in foresight in the determination of policy, priorities and costs of an educational system having due regards for economic and political realities for the system potential growth and for the needs of the country and of the students served by the system. Educational Planning emerged out of the need to connect education with national development. Educational planning increasingly felt after the independence to provide better education for industrial development in the country. I Fundamentals of educational planning entails the following; the objectives of educational planning; the importance of educational planning, components of Educational planning, Educational planning process and approaches to Educational Planning.
THE OBJECTIVES OF EDUCATIONAL PLANNING.
There are various dimensions to the general objectives of educational planning. These cut across political, legal, economic, social, cultural, demography, scientific and technological.
- Political dimensions.
The political objective of the educational planning should relate to the promotion of justice, peace, law order and good governance. The opinion of the religious groups, teachers, organizations and traditional rulers should also be considered. No planning process is known to be incongruent with political considerations.
- Economic Dimensions.
The economic consideration in educational planning should lay emphasis on the need for individual to live happily. Educational plan should include labour and employment aspects. Educational plan should tend towards preparing people for gainful employment, development of gifts of nature and production of goods to satisfy human wants. Scholars had held the view that there is a causal relationship between education and earnings.
- Science and Technology Dimension.
Education for technological advancement should be well planned, financed and implemented for the development of individuals in the technological society.
- Legal Dimensions.
Educational planning requires specific legal framework. The legislative, courts and the judiciary have important roles to play in education of a nation. There is need for legislative support for educational planning. The implementation of educational planning should be within the ambits of the nation’s constitution, status and education law.
- Demographic Dimensions.
Educational planning should take special notice of the structure and characteristics of the school going population and the population around the schools. Educational planning without sufficient demographic data results to failure at achieving the educational objectives. The growing population and the work force should be considered while planning the education of a nation.
- Cultural Dimensions.
Linguistic and cultural groups’ influence the operations of educational planning generally and also the implementation of polices on education. The national development objectives should be culture oriented because of the social value system as it affects education.
- Sociological Dimensions.
Educational planning should be able to consider the close relationship between the structure of the society and schooling. The society and the school engage in stratification and differentiation.
THE NEED FOR EDUCATIONAL PLANNING
The need for educational planning entails the following:
- The complex nature of education, the activities of the administrators within the system, and the highly diffuse nature of the goals of education calls for proper planning. Within the intensified complication of modern technological society, the need for social and economic planning arose. Pressures from population explosion, manpower needs, ecology, decreasing national resources and haphazard application of scientific development, the need to advance improvement as rapidly and cheaply as possible to benefit the individual and the nation, place demands on educational institutions for solution, hence the need for educational planning.
- Resources to be used in education sector are limited, thus the need to determine in advance a programme of action for the attainment of the goal within a given time.
- Adequate plans help to direct and co-ordinate the actions of employees in order to achieve maximum effectiveness, efficiency and productivity.
- Planning is necessary for administrative decisions in education, for it aims at putting into action what educators deems to achieve.
- Planning enables a nation to make its choices clear in terms of the aim and objectives.
- Educational plans are designed to avoid in balances and enormous wastes and replenish the steadily aggravated shortage of teachers. Since the goals and objectives of education are all embracing impacting upon social, economic and political well beings of the society, much is expected from educational planning.
ODULE 2 Introduction to Educational Management and Planning (PDE 113)
49COMPONENTS OF EDUCATIONAL PLANNING
The major considerations for educational planning in a country include;
- 1. Educational status and the Head count.
Every realistic plan is based on a dependable census when figure from the head count were dependable, we could estimate, with reasonable accuracy, the number of classroom, teachers and headmasters, desks and tables elaborative, capital and recurrent costs e.t.c
- Supply and Demand of Teachers
The quality of education depends solely on the quality of teachers trained. This is because they can only teach what they know. There is need for the restructuring of the curriculum of colleges of Education and faculties of Education to respond to national needs. Also, steps should be taken to improve the conditions of service of teachers if they are to remain in the education sector.
- Educational Financing
Graduates of primary or secondary education who secure jobs are able to earn wages and salaries and thus contribute to the Gross National Product, and this brings about the justification for public and private investment in education because of their returns. The equitable sharing of financial burdens of education amongst federal, state and local governments must be fully considered by all parties concerned.
- School Buildings
The design, construction, equipment and maintenance of school buildings should be considered. School buildings should be adequately maintained because of their depreciation value; which if not properly looked after, could be hazardous to the existence of the users that is teachers and students.
- Curriculum Development.
The constant modification of the curriculum is necessary, since the curriculum should be relevant to the needs of the society and the nation.
- Educational Materials.
The supply and distribution of educational materials are highly necessarily.
- Expansion Models
Expansion models must be created from the beginning to bring into consideration what is envisaged in the primary, secondary and tertiary schools many years ahead.
- Relevance to Political, Economic, Social and Cultural Policies and Objectives.
If educational plans are not closely geared towards political, economical, social and cultural objectives, they will not take off and people will be educationally dissatisfied.
- Integrated Implementation.
Strategies to mobilize everybody to reason to why the various statistics for planning are necessary will bring about a sincere consideration for the need to plan the education of a nation. When public support is achieved, decrees and laws are no longer imposed. Instruments and people will jointly work towards the implementation of the educational plan.
- Legal Bases.
Planning takes place under established laws. The legal framework for planning should be streamlined through legislation to include the form, structure and functions of the planning units and agencies, the staffing and the responsibilities, the relationships of the units with other educational authorities
THE EDUCATIONAL PLANNING PROCESS
Educational Planning Process involves the following steps;
- Plan survey and deliberations.
- Definition of goals and objectives
- Programs design and specification
- Programme provision
- Implementation and control
- Plan Evaluation and plan regeneration
Plan survey and deliberations
The very first task to be accomplished is a survey of the existing conditions, potentials and
constraints. Necessary data and information must be organized and analysed to reveal the
existing state of educational development and areas of needs. Then the next stage follows.
MODULE 2 Introduction to Educational Management and Planning (PDE 113)
Definition of goals and objectives
Once the planning survey and deliberations has been ascertained, the next thing to do is to define the new educational objectives to be pursued as well as specify the targets to be achieved. Educational objectives that are broadly stated by the political leadership must be made more specific by the technical planners to permit specific task definitions
Programme Planning and design.
This is the next task after defining goals and objectives. Here the technical planner has to reduce the already defined educational objectives to specific task to be accomplished and alternative programmes that can be adopted must be designed. The alternative programmes and or techniques for accomplishing such educational tasks must be quantitatively evaluated for efficacy to permit a rationale choice among them.
Once the choice of the most effective and efficient programme and or technique have been
made, the next thing is to implement. This requires the provision of adequate resources (human and materials) to ensure effective programme implementation.
Implementation and Control.
Translate the plan into action by arranging for the execution. Determine how the activities that should be done, the manpower requirements and so on. Arrange the execution of the plans, a sort of time table will be necessary to ensure that all actions taken are intend to achieve the stated objectives. This stage also requires the commitment of the political leadership to ensure efficient flow of resources and to guarantee smooth implementation and supervision of the plan.
Plan evaluation and plan regeneration.
Evaluation must be related to stated objectives. The extent to which a plan meets the goals it
has established for itself can be determined only when those goals are again brought to picture. A plan that does not produce the results it has anticipated has evidently failed. Plan regeneration constitutes the last lap in educational planning cycle. This requires linking subsequent plans with the previous plan in terms of feedbacks or learning experiences. Plan regeneration or recycling is most desirable so that unachieved objectives or programmes from previous plans can be accommodated in subsequent ones.
MODULE 2 Introduction to Educational Management and Planning (PDE 113)52
EDUCATIONAL PLANNING APPROACHES.
The following are approaches used in Educational Planning:
- Social Demand approach
- Manpower Requirement or forecasting approach
- Cost- Benefit/Rate Returns approach
- Synthetic (Eclectic) Approach.
SOCIAL DEMAND APPROACH
This approach relies on private demand for education and stipulates that all those that demand for education should be given the opportunity provided that they are qualified. This school believes that education is one of the fundamental human rights of every individual. As such, it recommends that all those who qualify for admission into a particular level of education must be given the opportunity (given admission). It is believed that all expenses and activities on education are good in themselves. When the citizens are literate, it will be easy for them to know their rights, participate in the choice of who is to rule them and avoid political snuggery. To a large extent, political reasons dictate the adoption of the social demand approach. This explains somehow why government continues to spend so much money on education. Government continues to spend more on educational facilities in order to reduce the gap in educational opportunities in different states, rural-urban areas and between men and women.
MANPOWER REQUIREMENT OR FORECASTING APPROACH
The term “Manpower” denotes the attempt to develop a nation’s human resources to meet the
demands of her economy. The Manpower requirements approach is applied purposely to
aspects of skilled manpower in the labour force.
This approach emphasizes the need for planners to reflect on the manpower needed areas of
the society using this as a basis for planning the educational system. The objective therefore
would be to satisfy present manpower needs as well as to forecast future needs.
COST –BENEFIT ANALYSIS/RATE OF RETURNS APPROACH.
This approach holds that in order to be able to decide whether a particular venture is worth
investing on or not, we need to calculate the cost of the venture and also calculate the benefits
to be derived from it. Then, the two (costs and benefits) are then compared. If it is such that:
- a) the cost is greater that the benefits, then it is advisable that you do not invest your
resources on the project, since loss is involved.
- b) the cost is less than the benefits, then it is advisable that you invest your resources in t
since you will make profit: and
- c) the cost equals the benefit, then you may have to consider some other factors such as
whether you want to embark on the project so as to gain some popularity, or not.
After considering such factors, you will be able to, in this case, decide on what to do.
The emphasis of this approach is that all investments in education like
other sectors of the economy must be cost-benefit oriented. Educational
planners adopting this approach evaluate the rate of returns or benefits
of education to both the individual and the society, before investments
THE SYNTHETIC (ECLECTIC) APPROACH.
This approach is a synthesis of the various approaches. It draws on the
benefits of the other three approaches.
It is integration of the education
with the general economic and social development planning. This
approach affords educational planners the benefits of each of the
approaches earlier mentioned.E 113)
Educational planning can be defined as the process of setting out in advance, strategies, policies, procedures, programmes and standards through which an educational objective (or set of objectives) can be achieved. For the explanation of educational planning to be concise, a number of basic elements must be present in that explanation. These are:
- Educational planning is a detailed and systematic process, it just does not happen by chance.
- It sets out in advance. It is a forecast of what duties, assignments and tasks (operations) are to take pace in the future.
- It must identify strategies, policies, procedures, programmes and standards: all these are necessary in order to chart the course of action that is required.
- It is goal-oriented: it is directed at achieving a set educational objective.
- Planning must take into consideration knowledge of the system for which the plan is
to be made, the part of that system on which the plan is to be made and the available resources in that system.